Advertisement

A Primer for the Evaluation of Bone Marrow

Published:October 18, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2022.08.002

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Riley R.S.
        • Hogan T.F.
        • Pavot D.R.
        • et al.
        A pathologist's perspective on bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: I. Performing a bone marrow examination.
        J Clin Lab Anal. 2004; 18: 70-90
        • Bain B.J.
        Bone marrow aspiration.
        J Clin Pathol. 2001; 54: 657-663
        • Raskin R.E.
        • Messick J.B.
        Bone marrow cytologic and histologic biopsies: indications, technique, and evaluation.
        Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012; 42: 23-42
        • Stacy N.I.
        • Harvey J.W.
        Bone marrow aspirate evaluation.
        Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2017; 47: 31-52
        • Woods G.A.
        • Simpson M.
        • Boag A.
        • et al.
        Complications associated with bone marrow sampling in dogs and cats.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2021; 62: 209-215
        • Lee S.H.
        • Erber W.N.
        • Porwit A.
        • et al.
        • International Council for Standardization In Hematology
        ICSH guidelines for the standardization of bone marrow specimens and reports.
        Int J Lab Hematol. 2008; 30: 349-364
        • Bain B.J.
        Bone marrow trephine biopsy.
        J Clin Pathol. 2001; 54: 737-742
        • Jain N.C.
        Essentials of veterinary hematology.
        Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia1993
        • Harvey J.W.
        Veterinary hematology: a diagnostic guide and color atlas.
        Saunders, St Louis, MO2012
        • Pawsat G.A.
        • Fry M.M.
        • Schneider L.
        • et al.
        Comparison of iron staining and scoring methods on canine bone marrow aspirates.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2021; 50: 132-141
        • Weiss D.J.
        Sideroblastic anemia in 7 dogs (1996-2002).
        J Vet Intern Med. 2005; 19: 325-328
        • Boosinger T.R.
        • Rebar A.H.
        • DeNicola D.B.
        • et al.
        Bone marrow alterations associated with canine parvoviral enteritis.
        Vet Pathol. 1982; 19: 558-561
        • Weiss D.J.
        • Smith S.A.
        Primary myelodysplastic syndromes of dogs: a report of 12 cases.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2000; 14: 491-494
        • Silva L.F.
        • Golim M.A.
        • Takahira R.K.
        Measurement of thrombopoietic activity through the quantification of megakaryocytes in bone marrow cytology and reticulated platelets.
        Res Vet Sci. 2012; 93: 313-317
        • Zini G.
        • Viscovo M.
        Cytomorphology of normal, reactive, dysmorphic, and dysplastic megakaryocytes in bone marrow aspirates.
        Int J Lab Hematol. 2021; 43: 23-28
        • Messick J.
        • Carothers M.
        • Wellman M.
        Identification and characterization of megakaryoblasts in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a dog.
        Vet Pathol. 1990; 27: 212-214
        • Feng G.
        • Gale R.P.
        • Cui W.
        • et al.
        A systematic classification of megakaryocytic dysplasia and its impact on prognosis for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
        Exp Hematol Oncol. 2016; 5: 12
        • Fabriek B.O.
        • Polfliet M.M.
        • Vloet R.P.
        • et al.
        The macrophage CD163 surface glycoprotein is an erythroblast adhesion receptor.
        Blood. 2007; 109: 5223-5229
        • Kato Y.
        • Murakami M.
        • Hoshino Y.
        • et al.
        The class A macrophage scavenger receptor CD204 is a useful immunohistochemical marker of canine histiocytic sarcoma.
        J Comp Pathol. 2013; 148: 188-196
        • Moore P.F.
        • Affolter V.K.
        • Vernau W.
        Canine hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma: a proliferative disorder of CD11d+ macrophages.
        Vet Pathol. 2006; 43: 632-645
        • Lucidi C.A.
        • de Rezende C.L.E.
        • Jutkowitz L.A.
        • et al.
        Histologic and cytologic bone marrow findings in dogs with suspected precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia and associated phagocytosis of erythroid precursors.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2017; 46: 401-415
        • Weiss D.J.
        • Smith S.A.
        A retrospective study of 19 cases of canine myelofibrosis.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2002; 16: 174-178
        • Moonim M.T.
        • Porwit A.
        Normal bone marrow histology.
        in: Porwit A. McCullough J. Erber W.N. Blood and bone marrow pathology. 2nd edition. Elsevier Ltd., St Louis, MO2011: 45-62
        • Foucar K.
        Morphologic review of blood and bone marrow.
        in: 3rd edition. Bone marrow pathology. 1. ASCP Press, Chicago2010: 29-51 (ASCP Press American Society for Clinical Pathology)
        • Gal A.
        • Burchell R.K.
        • Worth A.J.
        • et al.
        The site of bone marrow acquisition affects the myeloid to erythroid ratio in apparently healthy dogs.
        Vet Pathol. 2018; 55: 853-860
        • Travlos G.S.
        Histopathology of bone marrow.
        Toxicol Pathol. 2006; 34: 566-598
        • Weiss D.J.
        • Aird B.
        Cytologic evaluation of primary and secondary myelodysplastic syndromes in the dog.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2001; 30: 67-75
        • Goasguen J.E.
        • Bennett J.M.
        • Bain B.J.
        • et al.
        The International Working Group on Morphology of MDS). Dyserythropoiesis in the diagnosis of the myelodysplastic syndromes and other myeloid neoplasms: problem areas.
        Br J Haematol. 2018; 182: 526-533
        • Shekhar R.
        • Srinivasan V.K.
        • Pai S.
        How I investigate dysgranulopoiesis.
        Int J Lab Hematol. 2021; 43: 538-546
        • Foucar K.
        • Reichard K.
        • Czuchlewski D.
        Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
        in: 3rd edition. Bone marrow pathology. 1. ASCP Press, Chicago2010: 377-431 (ASCP Press American Society for Clinical Pathology)
        • Reichard K.
        Megakaryocytic/platelet disorders.
        in: 3rd edition. Bone marrow pathology. 1. ASCP Press, Chicago2010: 231-251 (ASCP Press American Society for Clinical Pathology)
        • Foucar K.
        Focar K. Reichard K. Czuchlewski D. Bone marrow stroma and bone marrow diosrders. 3rd edition. Bone marrow pathology. 1. ASCP Press, Chicago2010: 653-685 (ASCP Press American Society for Clinical Pathology)
        • Czuchlewski D.
        Aplastic Anemia and Multilineage Bone marrow Failure Disorders.
        in: 3rd edition. Bone marrow pathology. 1. ASCP Press, Chicago2010: 131-149 (ASCP Press American Society for Clinical Pathology)
        • Barbin F.F.
        • Oliveira C.C.
        Gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.
        Autops Case Rep. 2017; 7: 5-8
        • Pierezan F.
        • Mansell J.
        • Ambrus A.
        • Rodrigues Hoffmann A.
        Immunohistochemical expression of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 in cutaneous histiocytic proliferative, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of dogs and cats.
        J Comp Pathol. 2014; 151: 347-351
        • Weiss L.
        The structure of bone marrow. Functional interrelationships of vascular and hematopoietic compartments in experimental hemolytic anemia: an electron microscopic study.
        J Morphol. 1965; 117: 467-537
        • Ramos-Vara J.A.
        • Miller M.A.
        • Dusold D.M.
        Immunohistochemical Expression of CD31 (PECAM-1) in Nonendothelial Tumors of Dogs.
        Vet Pathol. 2018; 55: 402-408
        • Kuter D.J.
        • Bain B.
        • Mufti G.
        • et al.
        Bone marrow fibrosis: pathophysiology and clinical significance of increased bone marrow stromal fibres.
        Br J Haematol. 2007; 139: 351-362
        • Burkhardt R.
        • Kettner G.
        • Böhm W.
        • et al.
        Changes in trabecular bone, hematopoiesis and bone marrow vessels in aplastic anemia, primary osteoporosis, and old age: a comparative histomorphometric study.
        Bone. 1987; 8: 157-164
        • Murari M.
        • Pandey R.
        A synoptic reporting system for bone marrow aspiration and core biopsy specimens.
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006; 130: 1825-1829