Review Article| Volume 53, ISSUE 1, P17-28, January 2023

Point-of-Care Instruments

Published:October 18, 2022DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Flatland B.
        • Freeman K.P.
        • Vap L.M.
        • et al.
        ASVCP guidelines: Quality assurance for point-of-care testing in veterinary medicine.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2013; 42: 405-413
        • Stockham S.
        • Scott M.
        Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology.
        2nd edition. Blackwell, Ames, IA2008
        • Weiser G.
        Laboratory technology for veterinary medicine.
        in: Thrall M.A. Weiser G. Allison R.W. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry. 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA2012: 3-33
      1. IDEXX Catalyst Dx Chemistry Analyzer Analyzer’s Operator’s Guide.
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 28, 2022)
        • Harr K.E.
        • Flatland B.
        • Nabity M.
        • et al.
        ASVCP guidelines: Allowable total error guidelines for biochemistry.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2013; 42: 424-436
        • Nabity M.B.
        • Harr K.E.
        • Camus M.S.
        • et al.
        ASVCP guidelines: Allowable total error hematology.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2018; 47: 9-21
        • Rishniw M.
        • Pion P.D.
        Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2016; 45: 604-614
      2. Heska Hematrue Veterinary Hematology Analyzer Product Manual.
        (Available at:) (Accessed May 30, 2022)
      3. Zoetis VetScan HM5 Operator’s Manual.
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 28, 2022)
      4. Zoetis VetScan HT5 Product Manual.
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 28, 2022)
      5. IDEXX Procyte Dx Hematology Analyzer Operator’s Guide.
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 28, 2022)
        • Sysmex Multispecies Hematology Analyzers XN-V Series
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 28, 2022)
        • Tvedten H.W.
        • Andersson V.
        • Lilliehöök I.E.
        Feline Differential Leukocyte Count with ProCyte Dx: Frequency and Severity of a Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Error and How to Avoid It.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2017; 31: 1708-1716
      6. IDEXX Coag Dx Analzyer Operator's Guide.
        (Available at:) (Accessed March 29, 2022)
      7. Zoetis VetScan VSpro Specialty Analyzer Operator’s Manual.
        (Available at:) (Accessed on March 29, 2022)
        • Smith S.A.
        • McMichael M.A.
        • Gilor S.
        • et al.
        Correlation of hematocrit, platelet concentration, and plasma coagulation factors with results of thromboelastometry in canine whole blood samples.
        Am J Vet Res. 2012; 73: 789-798
        • McMichael M.
        • Smith S.A.
        • McConachie E.L.
        • et al.
        In-vitro hypocoagulability on whole blood thromboelastometry associated with in-vivo expansion of red cell mass in an equine model.
        Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011; 22: 424-430
        • Kitchen D.P.
        • Kitchen S.
        • Jennings I.
        • et al.
        Quality assurance and quality control of thrombelastography and rotational Thromboelastometry: the UK NEQAS for blood coagulation experience.
        Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010; 36: 757-763
        • Oesch U.
        • Ammann D.
        • Simon W.
        Ion-selective membrane electrodes for clinical use.
        Clin Chem. 1986; 32: 1448-1459
      8. Nova Medical Stat Profile Prime Plus® VET Critical Care Analyzer.
        (Available at:) (Accessed May 30, 2022)
        • Collicut N.B.
        • Garner B.
        • Berghaus R.D.
        • et al.
        Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2015; 44: 120-127
        • Gerber K.L.
        • Freeman K.P.
        ASVCP Guidelines: Quality Assurance for Portable Blood Glucose Meter (Glucometer) Use in Veterinary Medicine.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2016; 45: 10-27
        • Kilpatrick E.S.
        • Rumley A.G.
        • Myint H.
        • et al.
        The effect of variation in haematocrit, mean cell volume and red blood cell count on reagent strip tests for glucose.
        Ann Clin Biochem. 1993; 30: 485-487
        • Lane S.L.
        • Koenig A.
        • Brainard B.A.
        Formulation and validation of a predictive model to correct blood glucose concentrations obtained with a veterinary point-of-care glucometer in hemodiluted and hemoconcentrated canine blood samples.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015; 246: 307-312
        • Osborne C.A.
        • Stevens J.B.
        Urinalysis: a clinical guide to compassionate patient care.
        1st edition. Bayer, St. Louis, MO1999: 77
        • Ferreira MdF.
        • Arce M.G.
        • Handel I.G.
        • et al.
        Urine dipstick precision with standard visual and automated methods within a small animal teaching hospital.
        Vet Rec. 2018; 183: 415
      9. Zoetis VetScan UA User’s Manual.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 2, 2022)
        • Vasilatis D.M.
        • Cowgill L.D.
        • Farace G.
        • et al.
        Comparison of IDEXX SediVue Dx® urine sediment analyzer to manual microscopy for detection of casts in canine urine.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2021; 35: 1439-1447
        • Neubert E.
        • Weber K.
        Using the Idexx SediVue Dx to predict the need for urine bacteriologic culture in cats.
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 2021; 33: 1202-1205
        • Hernandez A.M.
        • Bilbrough G.E.A.
        • DeNicola D.B.
        • et al.
        Comparison of the performance of the IDEXX SediVue Dx® with manual microscopy for the detection of cells and 2 crystal types in canine and feline urine.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2019; 33: 167-177