Advertisement

Toxicology Case Presentations

Published:October 18, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2022.07.013

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Top 10 Pet Toxins of 2021.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 14, 2022)
        • Duhadway M.R.
        • Sharp C.R.
        • Meyers K.E.
        • et al.
        Retrospective evaluation of xylitol ingestion in dogs: 192 cases (2007-2012).
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2015; 25: 646-654
        • Murphy L.A.
        • Dunayer E.K.
        Xylitol Toxicosis in Dogs: An Update.
        Vet Clin North Am - Small Anim Pract. 2018; 48: 985-990
        • Dunayer E.K.
        • Gwaltney-Brant S.M.
        Acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy associated with xylitol ingestion in eight dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006; 229: 1113-1117
        • Ahuja V.
        • Macho M.
        • Ewe D.
        • et al.
        Biological and pharmacological potential of xylitol: A molecular insight of unique metabolism.
        Foods. 2020; 9
        • Jerzsele Á
        • Karancsi Z.
        • Pászti-Gere E.
        • et al.
        Effects of p.o. administered xylitol in cats.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 41: 409-414
        • Kuzuya T.
        • Kanazawa Y.
        Studies on the mechanism of xylitol-induced insulin secretion in dogs - Effect of its infusion into the pancreatic artery, and the inhibition by epinephrine and diazoxide of xylitol-induced hyperinsulinaemia.
        Diabetologia. 1969; 5: 248-257
        • Hirata Y.
        • Fujisawa M.
        • Sato H.
        • et al.
        Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to xylitol administrated intravenously in dogs.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1966; 24: 471-475
        • Kuzuya T.
        • Kanazawa Y.
        • Kosaka K.
        Stimulation of insulin secretion by xylitol in dogs.
        Endocrinology. 1969; 84: 200-207
        • Tasaka Y.
        • Nakamura H.
        • So M.
        • et al.
        Effects of Xylitol and Glucose on Insulin Release from Dog Pancreas Tissue in vitro.
        Endocrinol Jpn. 1971; 18: 341-345
        • Xia Z.
        • He Y.
        • Yu J.
        Experimental acute toxicity of xylitol in dogs.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 32: 465-469
        • Xia Z.
        • Cai L.
        • He Y.
        • et al.
        Xylitol poisoning of dogs is associated with increased glycogenolysis, coagulopathy, and oxidative stress.
        Toxicol Environ Chem. 2013; 95: 337-343
        • Megapanou E.
        • Florentin M.
        • Milionis H.
        • et al.
        Drug-Induced Hypophosphatemia: Current Insights.
        Drug Saf. 2020; 43: 197-210
        • Woods H.F.
        • Krebs H.A.
        Xylitol metabolism in the isolated perfused rat liver.
        Biochem J. 1973; 134
        • Kaae J.A.
        • Hill A.E.
        • Poppenga R.H.
        Physical examination, serum biochemical, and coagulation abnormalities, treatments, and outcomes for dogs with toxicosis from α-amanitin–containing mushrooms: 59 cases (2006–2019).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2021; 258: 502-509
        • Goupil R.C.
        • Davis M.
        • Kaufman A.
        • et al.
        Clinical recovery of 5 dogs from amatoxin mushroom poisoning using an adapted Santa Cruz protocol for people.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2021; 31: 414-427
        • Tegzes J.H.
        • Puschner B.
        Amanita mushroom poisoning: Efficacy of aggressive treatment of two dogs.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002; 44: 96-99
        • Puschner B.
        • Rose H.H.
        • Filigenzi M.S.
        Diagnosis of Amanita Toxicosis in a Dog with Acute Hepatic Necrosis.
        J Vet Diagn Investig. 2007; 19: 312-317
        • Sun J.
        • Niu Y.M.
        • Zhang Y.T.
        • et al.
        Toxicity and toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in beagle dogs.
        Toxicon. 2018; 143: 59-67
        • Puschner B.
        • Wegenast C.
        Mushroom Poisoning Cases in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatotoxic, Neurotoxic, Gastroenterotoxic, Nephrotoxic, and Muscarinic Mushrooms.
        Vet Clin North Am - Small Anim Pract. 2018; 48: 1053-1067
        • Garcia J.
        • Costa V.M.
        • Carvalho A.
        • et al.
        Amanita phalloides poisoning: Mechanisms of toxicity and treatment.
        Food Chem Toxicol. 2015; 86: 41-55
        • Faulstich H.
        • Talas A.
        • Wellhöner H.H.
        Toxicokinetics of labeled amatoxins in the dog.
        Arch Toxicol. 1985; 56: 190-194
        • Bever C.S.
        • Swanson K.D.
        • Hamelin E.I.
        • et al.
        Rapid, sensitive, and accurate point-of-care detection of lethal amatoxins in urine.
        Toxins (Basel). 2020; 12: 123
        • Letschert K.
        • Faulstich H.
        • Keller D.
        • et al.
        Molecular characterization and inhibition of amanitin uptake into human hepatocytes.
        Toxicol Sci. 2006; 91: 140-149
        • Magdalan J.
        • Ostrowska A.
        • Piotrowska A.
        • et al.
        α-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.
        Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2010; 48: 58-62
        • Wang M.
        • Chen Y.
        • Guo Z.
        • et al.
        Changes in the mitochondrial proteome in human hepatocytes in response to alpha-amanitin hepatotoxicity.
        Toxicon. 2018; 156: 34-40
        • Kawaji A.
        • Yamauchi K.
        • Fujii S.
        • et al.
        Effects of Mushroom Toxins on Glycogenolysis; Comparison of Toxicity of Phalloidin, a-Amanitin and DL-Propargylglycine in Iso lated Rat Hepatocytes.
        J Pharmacobiodyn. 1992; 15: 107-112
        • De Carlo E.
        • Milanesi A.
        • Martini C.
        • et al.
        Effects of Amanita phalloides toxins on insulin release: In vivo and in vitro studies.
        Arch Toxicol. 2003; 77: 441-445
        • King N.
        • Tran M.H.
        Long-Acting Anticoagulant Rodenticide (Superwarfarin) Poisoning: A Review of Its Historical Development, Epidemiology, and Clinical Management.
        Transfus Med Rev. 2015; 29: 250-258
        • DeClementi C.
        • Sobczak B.R.
        Common Rodenticide Toxicoses in Small Animals.
        Vet Clin North Am - Small Anim Pract. 2018; 48: 1027-1038
        • Nakayama S.M.M.
        • Morita A.
        • Ikenaka Y.
        • et al.
        A review: Poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target animals globally.
        J Vet Med Sci. 2019; 81: 298-313
        • Feinstein D.L.
        • Akpa B.S.
        • Ayee M.A.
        • et al.
        The emerging threat of superwarfarins: history, detection, mechanisms, and countermeasures.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016; 1374: 111-122
        • Waddell L.S.
        • Poppenga R.H.
        • Drobatz K.J.
        Anticoagulant rodenticide screening in dogs: 123 cases (1996-2003).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013; 242: 516-521
        • Berry C.R.
        • Gallaway A.
        • Thrall D.E.
        • et al.
        Thoracic radiographic features of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in fourteen dogs.
        Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1993; 34: 391-396
        • DuVall M.D.
        • Murphy M.J.
        • Ray A.C.
        • et al.
        Case studies on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide toxicities in nontarget species.
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 1989; 1: 66-68
        • Griggs A.N.
        • Allbaugh R.A.
        • Tofflemire K.L.
        • et al.
        Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in six dogs presenting for ocular disease.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2016; 19: 73-80
        • Haines B.
        Anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion and toxicity: A retrospective study of 252 Canine cases.
        Aust Vet Pract. 2008; 38: 38-50
        • Lawson C.
        • O’Brien M.
        • McMichael M.
        Upper airway obstruction secondary to anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis in five dogs.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2017; 53: 236-241
        • Sheafor S.E.
        • Guillermo Couto C.
        Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in 21 dogs.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1999; 35: 38-46
        • Kohn B.
        • Weingart C.
        • Giger U.
        Haemorrhage in seven cats with suspected anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication.
        J Feline Med Surg. 2003; 5: 295-304
        • Petterino C.
        • Paolo B.
        • Tristo G.
        Clinical and Pathological Features of Anticoagulant Rodenticide Intoxications in Dogs.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004; 46: 70-75
        • Lewis D.C.
        • Bruyette D.S.
        • Kellerman D.L.
        • et al.
        Thrombocytopenia in Dogs with Anticoagulant Rodenticide-lnduced Hemorrhage: Eight Cases (1990-1995).
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1997; 33: 417-422
        • Reitemeyer S.
        • Kohn B.
        • Giger U.
        • et al.
        Rodenticid intoxication in 20 bleeding dogs: Diagnosis and therapy.
        KLEINTIERPRAXIS. 2001; 46: 549-560
        • Robben J.H.
        • Kuijpers E.A.P.
        • Mout H.C.A.
        Plasma superwarfarin levels and vitamin k1 treatment in dogs with anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning.
        Vet Q. 1998; 20: 24-27
        • Mooney E.T.
        • Agostini G.
        • Griebsch C.
        • et al.
        Intravenous vitamin K1 normalises prothrombin time in 1 hour in dogs with anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis.
        Aust Vet J. 2020; 98: 225-231
        • Walton K.L.
        • Otto C.M.
        Retrospective evaluation of feline rodenticide exposure and gastrointestinal decontamination: 146 cases (2000–2010).
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2018; 28: 457-463
        • Dakin G.
        Post-mortem toxicological findings in a case of warfarin poisoning.
        Vet Rec. 1968; 83: 664
        • Kaewamatawong T.
        • Lohavanijaya A.
        • Charoenlertkul P.
        • et al.
        Retrospective histopathological study of hemorrhagic lesion of coumarin intoxication in dogs.
        Thai J Vet Med. 2011; 41: 239-244
        • Cummings J.E.
        • Kovacic J.P.
        The ubiquitous role of zinc in health and disease: State-of-the-Art Review.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2009; 19: 215-240
        • Talcott P.
        Zinc.
        in: Peterson M.E. Talcott P.A. Small Animal toxicology. 3rd edition. Elsevier, 2013: 847-851
        • Abdel-Mageed A.B.
        • Oehme F.W.
        A review on biochemical roles, toxicity and interactions of zinc, copper and iron: IV. Interactions.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 1990; 32: 456-458
        • Sandstead H.H.
        Understanding zinc: recent observations and interpretations.
        J Lab Clin Med. 1994; 124: 322-327
        • Blundell R.
        • Adam F.
        Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.
        Vet Rec. 2013; 172: 17
        • Mikszewski J.S.
        • Saunders H.M.
        • Hess R.S.
        Zinc-associated acute pancreatitis in a dog.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2003; 44: 177-180
        • Shaw D.P.
        • Collins J.E.
        • Murphy M.J.
        Pancreatic fibrosis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 1991; 3: 80-81
        • Gurnee C.M.
        • Drobatz K.J.
        Zinc intoxication in dogs: 19 Cases (1991-2003).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007; 230: 1174-1179
        • Adam F.
        • Elliott J.
        • Dandrieux J.
        • et al.
        Poisoning: Zinc toxicity in two dogs associated with the ingestion of identification tags.
        Vet Rec. 2011; 168: 84-85
        • Ashbaugh E.
        Zinc toxicity.
        in: Hovda L. Brutlag A. Poppenga R. Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult clinical Companion: small Animal Emergency and critical care. 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 2017: 8
        • Bexfield N.
        • Archer J.
        • Herrtage M.
        Heinz body haemolytic anaemia in a dog secondary to ingestion of a zinc toy: A case report.
        Vet J. 2007; 174: 414-417
        • Hammond G.M.
        • Loewen M.E.
        • Blakley B.R.
        Diagnosis and treatment of zinc poisoning in a dog.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004; 46: 272-275
        • Latimer K.S.
        • Jain A.V.
        • Inglesby H.B.
        • et al.
        Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia caused by ingestion of pennies by a pup.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989; 195: 77-80
        • Volmer P.A.
        • Roberts J.
        • Meerdink G.L.
        Anuric renal failure associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004; 46: 276-278
        • Bischoff K.
        • Chiapella A.
        • Weisman J.
        • et al.
        Zinc Toxicosis in a Boxer Dog Secondary to Ingestion of Holiday Garland.
        J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13: 263-266
        • Ambar N.
        • Tovar T.
        Suspected hemolytic anemia secondary to acute zinc toxicity after ingestion of “max strength” (zinc oxide) diaper rash cream.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2022; 32: 125-128
        • Breitschwerdt E.B.
        • Armstrong P.J.
        • Robinette C.L.
        • et al.
        Three cases of acute zinc toxicosis in dogs.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 1986; 28: 109-117
        • Meurs K.M.
        • Breitschwerdt E.B.
        • Baty C.J.
        • et al.
        Postsurgical mortality secondary to zinc toxicity in dogs.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 1991; 33: 579-583
        • Clancey N.P.
        • Murphy M.C.
        Case Report Rapport de Cas zinc-induced hemolytic anemia in a dog caused by ingestion of a Game-Playing Die. 53. 2012
        • Schenck P.
        • Chew D.J.
        • LA N
        • et al.
        Disorders of Calcium.
        in: Dibartola S. Fluid, Electrolyte, and acid-base Disorders. 4th edition. 2012: 120-131
        • Rumbeiha W.K.
        • Fitzgerald S.D.
        • Kruger J.M.
        • et al.
        Use of pamidronate disodium to reduce cholecalciferol-induced toxicosis in dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 2000; 61: 9-13
        • Pesillo S.A.
        • Khan S.A.
        • Rozanski E.A.
        • et al.
        Calcipotriene Toxicosis in a dog successfully treated with Pamidronate Disodium.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2002; 12: 177-181
        • Hostutler R.A.
        • Chew D.J.
        • Jaeger J.Q.
        • et al.
        Uses and effectiveness of pamidronate disodium for treatment of dogs and cats with hypercalcemia.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2005; 19: 29-33
        • Asad U.
        • Boothe D.
        • Tarbox M.
        Effect of topical dermatologic medications in humans on household pets.
        Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020; 33: 131-132
        • Fan T.M.
        • Simpson K.W.
        • Trasti S.
        • et al.
        Calcipotriol toxicity in a dog.
        J Small Anim Pract. 1998; 39: 581-586
        • Campbell A.
        Calcipotriol poisoning in dogs.
        Vet Rec. 1997; 141: 27-28
        • Ho B.
        • Ellison J.
        • Edwards N.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of vitamin D analogue toxicity in dogs.
        Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021; 46: 577-578
        • Rumbeiha W.
        Cholecalciferol.
        in: Peterson M.E. Talcott P.A. Small Animal toxicology. 3rd edition. Elsevier Saunders, 2013: 489-498
        • Kraut J.A.
        • Madiast N.E.
        Serum anion gap: Its uses and limitations in clinical medicine.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 2: 162-174
        • Hall J.O.
        Lilies.
        in: Peterson M. Talcott P. Small Animal toxicology. 3rd edition. Saunders Elsevier, 2013: 617-620
        • Rumbeiha W.K.
        • Francis J.A.
        • Fitzgerald S.D.
        • et al.
        A comprehensive study of Easter lily poisoning in cats.
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004; 16: 527-541
        • Fitzgerald K.T.
        Lily toxicity in the cat.
        Top Companion Anim Med. 2010; 25: 213-217
        • Brady M.A.
        • Janovitz E.B.
        Nephrotoxicosis in a cat following ingestion of Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium sp).
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000; 12: 566-568
        • Bennett A.J.
        • Reineke E.L.
        Outcome following gastrointestinal tract decontamination and intravenous fluid diuresis in cats with known lily ingestion: 25 cases (2001-2010).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013; 242: 1110-1116
        • Volmer P.A.
        Easter lily toxicosis in cats.
        Vet Med. 1999; 94: 331
        • Berg R.I.M.
        • Francey T.
        • Segev G.
        Resolution of acute kidney injury in a cat after lily (Lilium lancifolium) intoxication.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2007; 21: 857-859
        • Hadley R.M.
        • Richardson J.A.
        • Gwaltney-Brant S.M.
        A retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats.
        Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003; 45: 38-39
        • Langston C.E.
        Acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002; 220 (36): 49-52
        • Tefft K.
        Lily nephrotoxicity in cats.
        Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet. 2004; 26: 149-156
      2. Rishniw M. Lily toxicity survey, https://www.vin.com/doc/?id=4242527&pid=8538, Vet Inf Netw, 2009.