Nutritional Management of Behavior and Brain Disorders in Dogs and Cats

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      PDF Download and 24 Hours Online Access
      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.
      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Bosch G.
        • Beerda B.
        • Hendriks W.H.
        • et al.
        Impact of nutrition on canine behaviour: current status and possible mechanisms.
        Nutr Res Rev. 2007; 20: 180-194
        • Foster J.A.
        • Neufeld K.A.M.
        Gut–brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression.
        Trends Neurosci. 2013; 36: 305-312
        • Kirchoff N.S.
        • Udell M.A.R.
        • Sharpton T.J.
        The gut microbiome correlates with conspecific aggression in a small population of rescued dogs (Canis familiaris).
        PeerJ. 2019; 7: e6103
        • Mondo E.
        • Barone M.
        • Soverini M.
        Gut microbiome structure and adrenocortical activity in dogs with aggressive and phobic behavioral disorders.
        Heliyon. 2020; 6: e03311
      1. McGowan RTS, Barnett HR, Czarnecku-Maulden G, et al. Tapping into those “gut feelings”: Impact of BL99 (Bifidobacterium longum) on anxiety in dogs In: Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists Veterinary Behavior Symposium. Denver, CO, July 11–12, 2018.

        • Oulhaj A.
        • Jernerén F.
        • Refsum H.
        • et al.
        Omega-3 fatty acid status enhances the prevention of cognitive decline by B vitamins in mild cognitive impairment.
        J Alzheimers Dis. 2016; 50: 547-557
        • Reger M.A.
        • Henderson S.T.
        • Hale C.
        • et al.
        Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults.
        Neurobiol Aging. 2004; 25: 311-314
        • Pan Y.
        • Larson B.
        • Araujo J.A.
        • et al.
        Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs.
        Br J Nutr. 2010; 103: 1746-1754
        • Markus C.R.
        • Olivier B.
        • Panhuysen G.E.
        • et al.
        The bovine protein α-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71: 1536-1544
        • Miclo L.
        • Perrin E.
        • Driou A.
        • et al.
        Characterization of α-casozepine, a tryptic peptide from bovine αs1-casein with benzodiazepine-like activity.
        FASEB J. 2001; 15: 1780-1782
        • Beata C.
        • Beaumont-Graff E.
        • Diaz C.
        • et al.
        Effects of alpha-casozepine (Zylkene) versus selegiline hydrochloride (Selgian, Anipryl) on anxiety disorders in dogs.
        J Vet Behav. 2007; 2: 175-183
        • Beata C.
        • Beaumont-Graff E.
        • Coll V.
        • et al.
        Effect of alpha casozepine (Zylkene) on anxiety in cats.
        J Vet Behav. 2007; 2: 40-46
      2. DePorter TL, Bledsoe DL, Conley JR, et al. Case report series of clinical effectiveness and safety of Solliquin® for behavioral support in dogs and cats. In: American College of Veterinary Behaviorists Veterinary Behavior Symposium Proceedings. San Antonio, TX, 2016. p. 27–8.

        • Fernstrom J.D.
        Large neutral amino acids: dietary effects on brain neurochemistry and function.
        Amino Acids. 2013; 45: 419-430
        • Wurtman R.J.
        • Wurtman J.J.
        • Regan M.M.
        • et al.
        Effects of normal meals rich in carbohydrates or proteins on plasma tryptophan and tyrosine ratios.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 128-132
        • Markus C.R.
        Effects of carbohydrates on brain tryptophan availability and stress performance.
        Biol Psychol. 2007; 76: 83-90
        • Dodman N.H.
        • Reisner I.
        • Shuster L.
        • et al.
        Effect of dietary protein content on behavior in dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996; 208: 376-379
        • DeNapoli J.S.
        • Dodman N.H.
        • Shuster L.
        • et al.
        Effect of dietary protein content and tryptophan supplementation on dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity in dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000; 217: 504-508
      3. Pereira GG, Fragoso S, Pires E. Effect of dietary intake of L-tryptophan supple-mentation on working dogs demonstrating stress related behaviours. In: Proceedings 53rd BSAVA Congress. Birmingham, UK, April 8–11, 2010.

        • Templeman J.R.
        • Davenport G.M.
        • Cant J.P.
        • et al.
        The effect of graded concentrations of dietary tryptophan on canine behavior in response to the approach of a familiar or unfamiliar individual.
        Can J Vet Res. 2018; 82: 294-305
        • Wakabayashi C.
        • Numakawa T.
        • Ninomiya M.
        • et al.
        Behavioral and molecular evidence for psychotropic effects in L-theanine.
        Psychopharmacology. 2012; 219: 1099-1109
        • Araujo J.A.
        • De Rivera C.
        • Ethier J.L.
        • et al.
        ANXITANE tablets reduce fear of human beings in a laboratory model of anxiety-related behavior.
        J Vet Behav. 2010; 5: 268e275
        • Dramard V.
        • Kern L.
        • Hofmans J.
        • et al.
        Effect of l-theanine tablets in reducing stress-related emotional signs in cats: an open-label field study.
        Ir Vet J. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13620-018-0130-4
        • Landsberg G.M.
        • Milgram N.W.
        • Mougeot I.
        • et al.
        Therapeutic effects of an α-casozepine and L-Tryptophan supplemented diet on fear and anxiety in the cat.
        J Feline Med Surg. 2017; 6: 594-602
        • Miyaji K.
        • Kato M.
        • Ohtani N.
        • et al.
        Experimental verification of the effects on normal domestic cats by feeding Prescription diet for decreasing stress.
        J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2015; 18: 355-362
        • Landsberg G.M.
        • Mougeot I.
        • Kelly S.
        • et al.
        Assessment of noise induced fear and anxiety in dogs: modification by a novel fish hydrolysate supplemented diet.
        J Vet Behav. 2015; 10: 391-395
        • Sechi S.
        • Di Cerbo A.
        • Canello S.
        • et al.
        Effects in dogs with behavioural disorders of a commercial nutraceutical diet on stress and neuroendocrine parameters.
        Vet Rec. 2017; 180: 18
        • Sunol A.
        • Perez-Accino J.
        • Kelley M.
        • et al.
        Successful dietary treatment of aggression and behavioral changes in a dog.
        J Vet Behav. 2020; 37: 56-60
        • Dinan T.G.
        • Cryan J.F.
        Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: implications for Psychoneuroendocrinology.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012; 37: 1369-1378
        • Pirbaglou M.
        • Katz J.
        • de Souza R.J.
        • et al.
        Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
        Nutr Res. 2016; 36: 889-898
        • Kaur H.
        • Singla A.
        • Snehdep S.
        • et al.
        Role of omega-3 fatty acids in canine health: a review.
        Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2020; 9: 2283-2293
        • Kidd P.M.
        Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids.
        Altern Med Rev. 2007; 12: 207-227
        • Heinemann K.M.
        • Waldron M.K.
        • Bigley K.E.
        • et al.
        Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are more efficient than α-linolenic acid in Improving electroretinogram responses of puppies exposed during gestation, lactation, and weaning.
        Nutr Neurosci. 2005; 135: 1960-1966
        • Zicker S.C.
        • Jewell D.E.
        • Yamka R.M.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid–rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012; 241: 583-594
        • Puurunen J.
        • Tiira K.
        • Lehtonen M.
        • et al.
        Non-targeted metabolite profiling reveals changes in oxidative stress, tryptophan and lipid metabolisms in fearful dogs.
        Behav Brain Funct. 2016; 12: 7
        • Sentürk S.
        • Yalçin E.
        Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.
        J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003; 50: 339-342
        • Re S.
        • Zanoletti M.
        • Emanuele E.
        Aggressive dogs are characterized by low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status.
        Vet Res Commun. 2008; 32: 225-230
        • Lenox C.E.
        • Bauer J.E.
        Potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acids in dogs and cats.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2013; 27: 217-226
        • Tapp P.D.
        • Siwak C.T.
        • Gao F.Q.
        • et al.
        Frontal lobe volume, function, and beta-amyloid pathology in a canine model of aging.
        J Neurosci. 2004; 224: 8205-8213
        • Rofina J.E.
        • van Ederen A.M.
        • Touissaint M.J.
        • et al.
        Cognitive disturbances in old dogs suffering from the canine counterpart of Alzheimer’s disease.
        Brain Res. 2006; 1069: 216-226
        • London E.D.
        • Ohata M.
        • Takei H.
        • et al.
        Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in beagle dogs of different ages.
        Neurobiol Aging. 1983; 4: 121-126
        • Zhang J.H.
        • Sampogna S.
        • Morales F.R.
        • et al.
        Age-related changes in cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal and the pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei of cats: a combined light and electron microscopic study.
        Brain Res. 2005; 1052: 47-55
        • Araujo J.A.
        • Nobrega J.N.
        • Raymond R.
        • et al.
        Aged dogs demonstrate both increased sensitivity to scopolamine and decreased muscarinic receptor density.
        Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011; 98: 203-209
        • Insua D.
        • Suárez M.L.
        • Santamarina G.
        • et al.
        Dogs with canine counterpart of Alzheimer's disease lose noradrenergic neurons.
        Neurobiol Aging. 2010; 31: 625-635
        • Madari A.
        • Farbakova J.
        • Katina S.
        • et al.
        Assessment of severity and progression of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome using the Canine Dementia Scale (CADES).
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2015; 17: 138-145
        • Milgram N.W.
        • Head E.
        • Zicker S.C.
        • et al.
        Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study.
        Neurobiol Aging. 2005; 26: 77-90
        • Scarmeas N.
        • Stern Y.
        • Tang M.X.
        • et al.
        Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
        Ann Neurol. 2006; 59: 912-921
        • Katina S.
        • Farbakova J.
        • Madari A.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome in Slovakia.
        Acta Vet Scand. 2016; 58: 17
        • Dodd C.E.
        • Zicker S.C.
        • Jewell D.E.
        • et al.
        Can a fortified food affect the behavioral manifestations of age-related cognitive decline in dogs?.
        Vet Med. 2003; 98: 396-408
        • Pan Y.
        • Landsberg G.
        • Mougeot I.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of a therapeutic diet on dogs with signs of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS): a prospective double blinded placebo controlled clinical trial.
        Front Nutr. 2018; 5: 127
        • Henderson S.T.
        High carbohydrate diets and Alzheimer’s disease.
        Med Hypotheses. 2004; 62: 689-700
        • Pan Y.
        • Kennedy A.D.
        • Jönsson T.J.
        • et al.
        Cognitive enhancement in old dogs from dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing arginine, antioxidants, B vitamins and fish oil.
        Br J Nutr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003464
        • Kim H.-Y.
        • Huang B.X.
        • Spector A.A.
        Phosphatidylserine in the brain: metabolism and function.
        Prog Lipid Res. 2014; : 1-18https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2014.06.002
        • Delwaide P.J.
        • Gyselynck-Mambourg A.M.
        • Hurlet A.
        • et al.
        Double blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients.
        Acta Neurol Scand. 1986; 73: 136-140
        • Hamilton J.
        • Greiner R.
        • Salem Jr., N.
        • et al.
        N-3 Fatty acid deficiency decreases phosphatidylserine accumulation selectively in neuronal tissues.
        Lipids. 2000; 35: 863-869
        • Araujo J.A.
        • Landsberg G.M.
        • Milgram N.W.
        • et al.
        Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine.
        Can Vet J. 2008; 49: 379-385
        • Osella M.C.
        • Re G.
        • Odore R.
        • et al.
        Canine cognitive dysfunction: prevalence, clinical signs treatment with a nutraceutical.
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2007; 105: 297-310
        • Heath S.E.
        • Barabas S.
        • Craze P.G.
        Nutritional supplementation in cases of canine cognitive dysfunction - a clinical trial.
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2007; 105: 274-283
        • Bottiglieri T.
        S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe): from the bench to the bedside—molecular basis of a pleiotrophic molecule.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76: 1151S-1157S
        • Rème C.A.
        • Dramard V.
        • Kern L.
        • et al.
        Effect of S-adenosylmethionine tablets on the reduction of age-related mental decline in dogs: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
        Vet Ther. 2008; 9: 69-82
        • Araujo J.A.
        • Faubert M.L.
        • Brooks M.L.
        • et al.
        Novifit (NoviSAME) tablets improve executive function in aged dogs and cats: implications for treatment of cognitive dysfunction syndrome.
        Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2012; 10: 90-98
        • Pan Y.
        • Araujo J.A.
        • Burrows J.
        • et al.
        Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine.
        Br J Nutr. 2013; 10: 1-10
      4. Houpt KA, Levine E, Landsberg GM, et al. Antioxidant fortified food improves owner perceived behavior in the aging cat. In: Proceedings ESFM Feline Conference, Prague, September 21-23, 2007.

        • Yi J.
        • Horky L.L.
        • Freidlich A.L.
        • et al.
        L-arginine and Alzheimer’s disease.
        Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2009; 3: 211-238
        • Packer L.
        • Tritschler H.J.
        • Wessel K.
        Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant a-lipoic acid.
        Free Radic Biol Med. 1997; 22: 359-378
        • Head E.
        • Nukala V.N.
        • Fenoglio K.A.
        • et al.
        Effects of age, dietary, and behavioral enrichment on brain mitochondria in a canine model of human aging.
        Exp Neurol. 2009; 220: 171-176
        • Selhub J.
        • Bagley L.C.
        • Miller J.
        • et al.
        B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71: 614S-620S
        • Calderón-Ospina C.A.
        • Nava-Mesa M.O.
        B Vitamins in the nervous system: current knowledge of the biochemical modes of action and synergies of thiamine, pyridoxine and cobalamin.
        CNS Neurosci Ther. 2020; 26: 5-13
        • Chew B.P.
        • Park J.S.
        • Wong T.S.
        • et al.
        Dietary beta-carotene stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs.
        J Nutr. 2000; 130: 1910-1913
        • Rani P.J.A.
        • Panneerselvam C.
        Effect of l-carnitine on brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in old rats.
        J Gerontol. 2002; 57: B134-B137
        • Cole G.M.
        • Ma Q.L.
        • Frautschy S.A.
        Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia.
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009; 81: 213-221
        • La Fata G.
        • Weber P.
        • Mohajeri M.H.
        Effects of vitamin E on cognitive performance during ageing and in Alzheimer's disease.
        Nutrients. 2014; 6: 5453-5472
        • Löscher W.
        Animal models of intractable epilepsy.
        Prog Neurobiol. 1997; 53: 239-258
        • Volk H.A.
        • Matiasek L.A.
        • Feliu-Pascual L.A.
        • et al.
        The efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in pharmacoresistant epileptic dogs.
        Vet J. 2008; 176: 310-319
        • McDonald T.J.W.
        • Cervenka M.C.
        Ketogenic diets for adults with highly refractory epilepsy.
        Epilepsy Curr. 2017; 17: 346-350
        • Larsen J.A.
        • Owens T.J.
        • Fascetti A.J.
        Nutritional management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014; 245: 504-508
        • Thavendiranathan P.
        • Mendonca A.
        • Dell C.
        • et al.
        The MCT ketogenic diet: effects on animal seizure models.
        Exp Neurol. 2000; 161: 696-703
        • Chang P.
        • Zuckermann A.M.
        • Williams S.
        • et al.
        Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency.
        J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015; 352: 43-52
        • Chang P.-S.
        • Augustin K.
        • Boddum K.
        • et al.
        Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibition.
        Brain. 2016; 139: 431-433
        • Hughes S.D.
        • Kanabus M.
        • Anderson G.
        • et al.
        The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and complex I activity in neuronal cells.
        J Neurochem. 2014; 129: 426-433
        • Law T.H.
        • Davis S.S.
        • Pan Y.
        • et al.
        A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.
        Br J Nutr. 2015; 114: 1438-1447
        • Berk B.A.
        • Law T.H.
        • Packer R.M.A.
        • et al.
        A multi-center randomized controlled trial of medium-chain triglyceride dietary supplementation on epilepsy in dogs.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2020; 34: 1248-1259
        • Bauer J.E.
        Evaluation and dietary consideration in idiopathic hyperlipidemia in dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995; 206: 1684-1688