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Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

A Disease of Canine and Feline Brain Aging
  • Gary M. Landsberg
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. North Toronto Animal Clinic, 99 Henderson Avenue, Thornhill, Ontario, Canada L3T 2K9
    Affiliations
    North Toronto Animal Clinic, 99 Henderson Avenue, Thornhill, Ontario, Canada L3T 2K9

    CanCog Technologies Inc, 120 Carlton Street, Suite 204, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 4K2
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  • Jeff Nichol
    Affiliations
    Veterinary Emergency and Specialty Center of New Mexico, 4000 Montgomery Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87109, USA
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  • Joseph A. Araujo
    Affiliations
    CanCog Technologies Inc, 120 Carlton Street, Suite 204, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 4K2

    InterVivo Solutions Inc, 120 Carlton Street, Suite 203, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 4K2

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
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      As pets age, behavior changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare. This is particularly true for some of the most common problems associated with aging, such as pain, sensory decline, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS). Early identification of these signs provides an opportunity for effective intervention.
      • Brain aging is a degenerative process that for many dogs and cats ultimately progresses to a loss of one or more cognitive domains or impairment of cognitive function.
      • Diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) is based on recognition of behavioral signs and exclusion of other medical conditions and drug side effects, which in some cases can mimic or complicate CDS.
      • Clinical categories include disorientation, alterations in social interactions, sleep-wake cycles, elimination habits, and activity, as well as increasing anxiety. Deficits in learning and memory have also been well documented.
      • Treatment is aimed at slowing the advancement of neuronal damage and cell death and improving clinical signs. Drugs, diet, and supplements can be used alone or concurrently to improve neurotransmission and reduce oxidative damage and inflammation.

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