Mushroom Poisoning Cases in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatotoxic, Neurotoxic, Gastroenterotoxic, Nephrotoxic, and Muscarinic Mushrooms

Published:January 03, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.12.002
      There is no simple test that distinguishes poisonous from nonpoisonous mushrooms, and accurate mushroom identification will require consultation with an experienced mycologist. Although it is estimated that only a few species are lethal, it is not clear how many of the mushrooms worldwide contain potentially toxic compounds. New species are being discovered continuously, and for many species, toxicity data are unavailable. In the United States, mushroom poisonings of humans and animals continue to be a medical emergency and demand extensive efforts from clinicians and toxicologists. It is challenging to establish a confirmed diagnosis of mushroom poisoning in animals because of limited diagnostic assays for toxin detection. Currently, only the detection of amanitins, psilocin, and psilocybin is available at select veterinary toxicology laboratories. Thus, only limited data on confirmed mushroom poisonings in animals exist. Because the risk of animals to ingest toxic mushrooms, particularly in dogs due to their indiscriminant eating habits, is much greater than the risk for humans, mushroom poisoning in animals is likely underreported.

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