Review Article| Volume 40, ISSUE 5, P859-869, September 2010

Download started.


Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy in Small Animals


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Gilmore D.R.
        • de Lahunta A.
        Necrotizing myelopathy secondary to presumed or confirmed fibrocartilaginous embolism in 24 dogs.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1986; 23: 373-376
        • Cauzinille L.
        • Kornegay J.N.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism of the spinal cord in dogs: review of 36 histologically confirmed cases and retrospective study of 26 suspected cases.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1996; 10: 241-245
        • Cauzinille L.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism in dogs.
        Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000; 30: 155-167
        • Hawthorne J.C.
        • Wallace L.J.
        • Fenner W.R.
        • et al.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in miniature schnauzers.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2001; 37: 374-383
        • Gandini G.
        • Cizinauskas S.
        • Lang J.
        • et al.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism in 75 dogs: clinical findings and factors influencing the recovery rate.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2003; 44: 76-80
        • Grunenfelder F.I.
        • Weishaupt D.
        • Green R.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging findings in spinal cord infarction in three small breed dogs.
        Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2005; 46: 91-96
        • Abramson C.J.
        • Garosi L.
        • Platt S.R.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of suspected ischemic myelopathy in dogs.
        Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2005; 46: 225-229
        • De Risio L.
        • Adams V.
        • Dennis R.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical associations in 52 dogs with suspected ischemic myelopathy.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2007; 21: 1290-1298
        • De Risio L.
        • Adams V.
        • Dennis R.
        • et al.
        Association of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings with outcome in dogs suspected to have ischemic myelopathy: 50 cases (2000–2006).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008; 233: 129-135
        • Han J.J.
        • Massagli T.L.
        • Jaffe K.M.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism—an uncommon cause of spinal cord infarction: a case report and review of the literature.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004; 85: 153-157
        • MacKay A.D.
        • Rusbridge C.
        • Sparkes A.H.
        • et al.
        MRI characteristics of suspected acute spinal cord infarction in two cats, and a review of the literature.
        J Feline Med Surg. 2005; 7: 101-107
        • Mikszewski J.S.
        • Van Winkle T.J.
        • Troxel M.T.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in five cats.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2006; 42: 226-233
        • Taylor H.W.
        • Vandevelde M.
        • Firth E.C.
        Ischemic myelopathy by fibrocartilaginous emboli in a horse.
        Vet Pathol. 1977; 14: 479-481
        • Tessaro S.V.
        • Doige C.E.
        • Rhodes C.S.
        Posterior paralysis due to fibrocartilaginous embolism in two weaner pigs.
        Can J Comp Med. 1983; 47: 124-126
        • Stedman N.L.
        • Brown T.P.
        • Rowland G.N.
        Intravascular cartilaginous emboli in the spinal cord of turkeys.
        Avian Dis. 1998; 42: 423-428
        • Jeffery M.
        • Wells G.A.
        Multifocal ischemic encephalomyelopathy associated with fibrocartilaginous emboli in the lamb.
        Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1986; 12: 231-244
        • Landolfi J.A.
        • Saunders G.K.
        • Swecker W.S.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a calf.
        J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004; 16: 360-362
        • Adaska J.M.
        • Lynch S.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).
        J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004; 35: 242-244
        • Renner M.S.
        • Bryant W.
        • Kennedy G.
        Fibrocartilaginous emboli in a tayra (Eira Barbara): a case report.
        J Zoo Wildl Med. 1998; 29: 470-473
        • Huneke R.B.
        • La Regina M.C.
        Acute paralysis caused by fibrocartilaginous embolism in a pigtail macaque.
        Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 1999; 38: 87-88
        • Evans H.E.
        The heart and arteries. Miller's anatomy of the dog.
        3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1993 (p. 626–9, 647–8, 659)
        • Sharp N.J.H.
        • Wheeler S.J.
        Functional anatomy.
        in: Sharp N.J.H. Wheeler S.J. Small animal spinal disorders, diagnosis and surgery. 2nd edition. Elsevier Mosby, London2005: 14-17
        • Caulkins S.E.
        • Purinton P.T.
        • Oliver J.E.
        Arterial supply to the spinal cord of dogs and cats.
        Am J Vet Res. 1989; 50: 425-430
        • Evans H.E.
        The veins. Miller's anatomy of the dog.
        3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1993 (p. 713–5)
        • Zaki F.A.
        • Prata R.G.
        Necrotizing myelopathy secondary to embolization of herniated intervertebral disk material in the dog.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1976; 169: 222-228
        • Hayes M.A.
        • Creighton R.
        • Boysen B.G.
        • et al.
        Acute necrotizing myelopathy from nucleus pulposus embolism in dogs with intervertebral disk degeneration.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1978; 173: 289-295
        • Olby N.
        • Jeffery N.
        Pathogenesis of diseases of the central nervous system.
        in: Slatter D. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia2003: 1132-1147
        • Ueno H.
        • Shimizu J.
        • Uzuka Y.
        • et al.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism in a chondrodystrophoid breed dog.
        Aust Vet J. 2005; 83: 142-144
        • Junker K.
        • van den Ingh T.
        • Bossard M.M.
        • et al.
        Fibrocartilaginous embolism of the spinal cord (FCE) in juvenile Irish wolfhounds.
        Vet Q. 2000; 22: 154-156
        • Smith P.M.
        • Jeffery N.D.
        Spinal Shock-Comparative aspects and clinical relevance.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2005; 19: 788-793
        • De Risio L.
        • Adams V.
        • Dennis R.
        • et al.
        Association of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings with outcome in dogs with presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion: 42 cases (2000–2007).
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009; 234: 495-504
        • Chang Y.
        • Dennis R.
        • Platt S.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging features of traumatic intervertebral disc extrusion in dogs.
        Vet Rec. 2007; 160: 795-799
      1. Stein VM, Wagner F, Bull C, et al. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging in suspected canine fibro-cartilaginous embolization [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the XIX Symposium of the European Society of Veterinary Neurology. Barcelona, Spain, September 29–30, 2006. p. 157.

        • Luo C.B.
        • Chang F.C.
        • Teng M.M.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging as a guide in the diagnosis and follow-up of spinal cord infarction.
        J Chin Med Assoc. 2003; 66: 89-95
        • Kuker W.
        • Weller M.
        • Klose U.
        • et al.
        Diffusion-weighted MRI of spinal cord infarction-high resolution imaging and time course of diffusion abnormality.
        J Neurol. 2004; 251: 818-824
        • Zhang J.
        • Huan Y.
        • Qian Y.
        • et al.
        Multishot diffusion weighted imaging features in spinal cord infarction.
        J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005; 18: 277-282
        • Zhang J.
        • Huan Y.
        • Sun L.J.
        • et al.
        Temporal evolution of spinal cord infarction in an in vivo experimental study of canine models characterized by diffusion-weighted imaging.
        J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007; 26: 848-854