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Diabetes mellitus in cats

      Feline diabetes is one of the most common endocrinopathies in cats. The frequency of feline diabetes varies with the population studied, with 1 in 200 cats affected in a first-accession feline practice and higher (1 in 100 cats) and lower (1 in 400 cats) frequencies reported in other populations [
      • Rand J.S.
      • Bobbermein L.M.
      • Hendrikz J.K.
      Over-representation of Burmese in cats with diabetes mellitus in Queensland.
      ,
      • Baral R.
      • Rand J.
      • Catt M.
      • Farrow H.
      Prevalence of feline diabetes mellitus in a feline private practice.
      ,
      • Panciera D.L.
      • Thomas C.
      • Eiker S.
      • et al.
      Epizootiologic patterns of diabetes mellitus in cats: 333 cases (1980–1986).
      ]. Burmese cats are predisposed to diabetes in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom (Gunn-Moore, BVM&S, PhD, unpublished data) [
      • Rand J.S.
      • Bobbermein L.M.
      • Hendrikz J.K.
      Over-representation of Burmese in cats with diabetes mellitus in Queensland.
      ,
      • Wade C.
      • Gething M.
      • Rand J.S.
      Evidence of a genetic basis for diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats.
      ], with 1 in 50 cats affected in Australia [
      • Baral R.
      • Rand J.
      • Catt M.
      • Farrow H.
      Prevalence of feline diabetes mellitus in a feline private practice.
      ]. Increasing age is a risk factor for feline diabetes, and most affected cats are older than 8 years, with a peak incidence between 10 and 13 years [
      • Baral R.
      • Rand J.
      • Catt M.
      • Farrow H.
      Prevalence of feline diabetes mellitus in a feline private practice.
      ,
      • Panciera D.L.
      • Thomas C.
      • Eiker S.
      • et al.
      Epizootiologic patterns of diabetes mellitus in cats: 333 cases (1980–1986).
      ]. Increasing age is also important in Burmese cats, with 1 in 10 Burmese cats 8 years of age or older reported to be diabetic [
      • Baral R.
      • Rand J.
      • Catt M.
      • Farrow H.
      Prevalence of feline diabetes mellitus in a feline private practice.
      ]. The incidence of diabetes in cats is increasing, as it is in people [
      • Prahl A.
      • Glickman L.
      • Guptil L.
      • et al.
      Time trends and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in cats.
      ]. The increase is likely because of an increase in obesity in cats, which is a factor recognized to increase the risk for feline diabetes [
      • Prahl A.
      • Glickman L.
      • Guptil L.
      • et al.
      Time trends and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in cats.
      ,
      • Lederer R.
      • Rand J.
      • Hughes I.
      • et al.
      Chronic or recurring medical problems, dental disease, repeated corticosteroid treatment, and lower physical activity are associated with diabetes in Burmese cats.
      ].
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