Boxer dog cardiomyopathy: an update

      Dr. Neil Harpster first described myocardial disease in the Boxer dog in the early 1980s. It was characterized as a degenerative myocardial disease with unique right ventricular histologic findings that include myocyte atrophy and fatty infiltration [
      • Harpster N.
      Boxer cardiomyopathy.
      ,
      • Harpster N.
      Boxer cardiomyopathy.
      ]. Affected dogs could be asymptomatic or syncopal with ventricular arrhythmias, and they sometimes developed congestive heart failure. The disease seemed to have a greater prevalence in certain families of dogs. In the early 1990s, Dr. Bruce Keene described a family of Boxers with myocardial dysfunction, tachyarrhythmias and congestive heart failure, and decreased myocardial carnitine levels [
      • Keene B.W.
      • Panciera D.P.
      • Atkins C.E.
      • Regizt V.
      • Schmidt M.J.
      • Shug A.L.
      Myocardial l-carnitine deficiency in a family of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.
      ].
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