Review article| Volume 33, ISSUE 6, P1419-1435, November 2003

Download started.


Plasma D-dimer for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disorders in dogs

      Fibrinolysis is an essential component of hemostasis. It is the natural balancing act for coagulation or thrombosis, limiting the extent of thrombus formation and ultimately being responsible for its dissolution. During plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis, breakdown or degradation products of fibrin are released. One of these products is D-dimer. This reviews answers the following questions. What is D-dimer? How is it produced? How does D-dimer differ from fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs)? How can D-dimer be used to diagnose hemostatic disorders in veterinary medicine?
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Mosesson M.W.
        • Siebenlist K.R.
        • Meh D.A.
        The structure and biological features of fibrinogen and fibrin.
        Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001; 936: 11-30
        • Gaffney P.J.
        Fibrin degradation products. A review of structures found in vitro and in vivo.
        Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001; 936: 594-610
        • Sidelmann J.J.
        • Gram J.
        • Jespersen J.
        • Kluft C.
        Fibrin clot formation and lysis: basic mechanisms.
        Semin Thromb Hemost. 2000; 26: 605-618
        • Horan J.T.
        • Francis C.W.
        Fibrin degradation products, fibrin monomer and soluble fibrin in disseminated intravascular coagulation.
        Semin Thromb Hemost. 2001; 27: 657-666
        • Anderson D.R.
        • Wells P.S.
        D-dimer for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.
        Curr Opin Hematol. 2000; 7: 296-301
        • Kroneman H.
        • Nieuwenhuizen W.
        • Knot E.A.R.
        Monoclonal antibody-based plasma assays for fibrin(ogen) and derivatives, and their clinical relevance.
        Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1990; 1: 91-111
        • Mavromatis B.H.
        • Kessler C.M.
        D-dimer testing: the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.
        J Clin Pathol. 2001; 54: 664-668
        • Reber G.
        • de Moerloose P.
        D-dimer assays for the exclusion of venous thromboembolism.
        Semin Thromb Hemost. 2000; 26: 619-624
        • Kelly J.
        • Rudd A.
        • Lewis R.R.
        • Hunt B.J.
        Plasma D-dimers in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.
        Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162: 747-756
        • Stokol T.
        • Brooks M.B.
        • Erb H.N.
        • Mauldin G.
        D-dimer concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation.
        Am J Vet Res. 2000; 61: 393-398
        • Caldin M.
        • Furlanello T.
        • Lubas G.
        Validation of an immunoturbidimetric D-dimer assay in canine citrated plasma.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2000; 29: 51-54
        • Griffin A.
        • Callan M.B.
        • Giger U.
        Clinical experience with a point-of-care D-dimer test in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism, and internal hemorrhage.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2002; 16 ([abstract]): 376
        • Sandholm M.
        • Vidovic A.
        • Puotunen-Reinert A.
        • Sankari S.
        • Nyholm K.
        • Rita H.
        D-dimer improves the prognostic value of combined clinical and laboratory data in equine gastrointestinal colic.
        Acta Vet Scand. 1995; 36: 255-272
        • Monreal L.
        • Angles A.M.
        • Monreal M.
        • Espada Y.
        • Monasterio J.
        Changes in haemostasis in endurance horses: detection by highly sensitive ELISA tests.
        Equine Vet J. 1995; 18: 120-123
        • Nelson O.L.
        • Andreasen C.
        The role of plasma D-dimer to detect thromboembolic disease in the dog.
        J Vet Intern Med. 2002; 16 ([abstract]): 375
        • Otto C.
        • Rieser T.M.
        • Brooks M.B.
        • Russell M.W.
        Evidence of hypercoagulability in dogs with parvoviral enteritis.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000; 217: 1500-1504
        • Scott-Moncrieff J.
        • Treadwell N.G.
        • McCullough S.M.
        • Brooks M.
        Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2001; 37: 220-227
        • Calverley D.
        • Liebman H.A.
        Disseminated intravascular coagulation.
        in: Hoffman R. Benz E.J. Shattil S.J. Hematology: basic principles and practice. 3rd edition. Churchill Livingstone, New York2000: 1983-1995
        • Caldin M.
        • Furlanello T.
        • Lubas G.
        Sensitivity and specificity of citrated plasma FDPs and D-dimer in the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in dogs.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1998; 12 ([abstract]): 236
        • Boisvert A.M.S.
        • Swenson C.L.
        • Haines C.J.
        Serum and plasma latex agglutination tests for detection of fibrin(ogen) degradation products in clinically ill dogs.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2001; 30: 133-136
        • Caldin M.
        • Furlanello T.
        • Berlo D.
        • Lubas G.
        Preliminary investigations of D-dimer concentrations in normal dogs and dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
        J Vet Intern Med. 1997; 11 ([abstract]): 130
        • Ihle S.L.
        • Baldwin C.J.
        • Pifer S.M.
        Probable recurrent femoral artery thrombosis in a dog with intestinal lymphosarcoma.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996; 208: 240-242
        • Boswood A.
        • Lamb C.R.
        • White R.N.
        Aortic and iliac thrombosis in six dogs.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2000; 41: 109-114
        • Johnson L.R.
        • Lappin M.R.
        • Baker D.C.
        Pulmonary thromboembolism in 29 dogs: 1985–1995.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1999; 13: 338-345
        • Palmer K.G.
        • King L.G.
        • Van Winkle T.J.
        Clinical manifestations and associated disease syndromes in dogs with cranial vena cava thrombosis: 17 cases 1989–1996.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998; 213: 220-224
        • Bick R.L.
        • Baker W.F.
        Diagnostic efficacy of the D-dimer assay in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
        Thromb Res. 1992; 65: 785-790
        • Lowe G.D.O.
        • Rumley A.
        Fibrinogen and its degradation products as thrombotic risk factors.
        Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001; 936: 560-565
        • Couto C.
        Disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs and cats.
        Vet Med. 1999; 94: 547-553
        • Bateman S.W.
        • Mathews A.K.
        • Abrams-Ogg A.C.G.
        Disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs: review of the literature.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 1998; 8: 29-45
        • Wada H.
        • Sakuragawa N.
        • Mori Y.
        • Takagi M.
        • Nakasaki T.
        • Shimura M.
        • et al.
        Hemostatic molecular markers before the onset of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
        Am J Hematol. 1999; 60: 273-278
        • Keyes M.L.
        • Rush J.E.
        • Knowles K.E.
        Pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 1993; 3: 23-32