Review article| Volume 33, ISSUE 2, P253-267, March 2003

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Diagnosis and management of compulsive disorders in dogs and cats

      Repetitive or sustained apparently abnormal behaviors performed out of context have been described in various species of farm animals and zoo animals, especially in horses. In horses, these behaviors have often erroneously been termed stable vices and include cribbing, weaving, stall walking, stargazing, and aggression to self. There is a vast literature on this behavioral abnormality in these species [
      ]. These abnormal behaviors have always been considered to develop from confinement-induced conflict behaviors and have been linked to specific husbandry practices [
      • Wiepkema P.R.
      Abnormal behaviours in farm animals: ethological implications.
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