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Lasers in veterinary medicine—where have we been, and where are we going?

      The principles necessary for the concept of laser development were reported as early as the nineteenth century with Bohr's theory of optical resonance. In 1917, Einstein proposed the concept of stimulated light emission. Finally in 1960, Theodore Maiman developed the first operational laser, which was a pulsed ruby laser [
      • Tullnes E.P.
      Transendoscopic contact neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser correction of epiglottic entrapment in standing horses.
      ]. His work was based on Albert Einstein's explanation of stimulated emission of radiation, coupled with Townes' and Schawlow's 1958 work with optical masers [
      • Itzkan I.
      • Drake E.H.
      History of lasers in medicine.
      ]. Since then, much of the progress in laser technology followed weapons research or commercial applications in the communication and manufacturing industries. When the “Cold War” ended, increased initiatives by laser manufacturers, formerly dedicated to military applications, provided a tremendous stimulus for advancements in both industrial and medical laser technology.
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