Abstract| Volume 31, ISSUE 5, P1005-1014, September 2001

Download started.


Medical Treatment of Canine Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Disease)

  • Mark E. Peterson
    Address reprint requests to Mark E. Peterson, DVM Department of Medicine The Animal Medical Center 510 East 62nd Street New York, NY 10021
    From the Division of Endocrinology, Bobst Hospital, and Caspary Research Institute, The Animal Medical Center, New York, New York
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease) is a relatively common endocrine disorder of middle- to old-age dogs. Three treatments commonly used in the management of pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease in dogs include mitotane, ketoconazole, and L-deprenyl. These medications are associated with the potential of different side effects and expense, but all can produce satisfactory results in dogs with this disease. The choice of treatment for a given dog depends on the severity of the dog's disease, as well as clinician and client preferences. This article reviews the indications and adverse effects associated with each of these three drugs, as well as the treatment protocols commonly used in treating dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Behrend E.N.
        • Clark T.P.
        • Kemppainen R.J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of and side effects associated with use of ketoconazole as treatment for canine Cushing's syndrome.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1996; 10: 182
        • Behrend E.N.
        • Kemppainen R.J.
        • Clark T.P.
        • et al.
        Treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs: A survey of internists and dermatologists.
        JAVMA. 1999; 215: 938
        • Bruyette D.S.
        • Feldman E.C.
        Ketoconazole and its use in the management of canine Cushing's disease.
        Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet. 1988; 10: 1379
        • Bruyette D.S.
        • Ruehl W.W.
        • Entriken T.
        • et al.
        Management of canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism with l-deprenyl (Anipryl).
        Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1997; 27: 273
        • Dunn K.J.
        • Herrtage M.E.
        • Dunn J.K.
        Use of ACTH stimulation tests to monitor the treatment of canine hyperadrenocorticism.
        Vet Ree. 1995; 137: 161
        • Feldman E.C.
        • Nelson R.W.
        Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's syndrome).
        in: In Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1996: 187
        • Greco D.S.
        • Behrend E.N.
        Corticosteroid withdrawal syndrome.
        in: Bonagua J.D. Kirk R.W. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XII. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1995: 413
        • Kemppainen R.J.
        • Sartin J.L.
        Differential secretion of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides by the pars distalis and pars intermedia of beagle dogs.
        J Endocrinol. 1988; 117: 91
        • Kintzer P.P.
        • Peterson M.E.
        Mitotane (o, p'-DDD) treatment of 200 dogs with pituitary- dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1991; 5: 182
        • Peterson M.E.
        Canine hyperadrenocorticism.
        in: Kirk R. Current Veterinary Therapy IX. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1986: 963
        • Peterson M.E.
        Medical treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs: Should L-deprenyl (Anipryl) ever be used?.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1999; 13: 289
        • Peterson M.E.
        o,p'-DDD (mitotane) treatment of canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
        JAVMA. 1983; 182: 527
        • Peterson M.E.
        Pathophysiology of canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease).
        Frontiers of Hormone Research. 1987; 17: 37
        • Peterson M.E.
        • Kintzer P.P.
        Medical treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.
        Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim). 1994; 9: 127
        • Peterson M.E.
        • Palkovits M.
        • Chieuh C.C.
        • et al.
        Biogenic amine and corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei and biogenic amine levels in the median eminence of normal dogs, chronic dexamethasone-treated dogs, and dogs with naturally-occurring hyperadrenocorticism (canine Cushing's syndrome).
        J Neuroendocrinol. 1989; 1: 169
        • Peterson M.E.
        • Krieger D.T.
        • Drucker W.D.
        • et al.
        Immunocytochemical study of the hypophysis in 25 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
        Acta Endocrinol. 1982; 101: 15
        • Peterson M.E.
        • Orth D.N.
        • Halmi N.S.
        • et al.
        Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides and Cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome: Basal concentrations.
        Endocrinology. 1986; 119: 720
        • Reusch C.E.
        • Steffen T.
        • Hoerauf A.
        The efficacy of L-Deprenyl in dogs with pituitary- dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
        J Vet Intern Med. 1999; 13: 291
        • Rijnberk A.
        • Mol J.A.
        • Kwant M.M.
        • et al.
        Effects of bromocriptine on corticotrophin, melanotrophin and corticosteroid secretion in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
        J Endocrinol. 1988; 118: 271
        • Simpson J.W.
        • Van Den Broek A.H.M.
        Assessment of fat absorption in normal dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
        Res Vet Sei. 1990; 48: 38
        • Schechter R.D.
        • Stabenfeldt G.H.
        • Gribble D.H.
        • et al.
        Treatment of Cushing's syndrome in the dog with an adrenocorticolytic agent (o, p'-DDD).
        JAVMA. 1973; 162: 629
        • Watson A.D.J.
        • Rijnberk A.
        • Moolenaar A.J.
        Systemic availability of o, p'-DDD in normal dogs, fasted and fed, and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
        Res Vet Sei. 1987; 43: 160
        • Willard M.D.
        • Schall W.D.
        • Nachreiner R.F.
        • et al.
        Hypoadrenocorticism following therapy with o, p'-DDD for hyperadrenocorticism in four dogs.
        JAVMA. 1982; 180: 638